What is TOWS

Guide: TOWS Matrix

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Daniel Croft

Daniel Croft is an experienced continuous improvement manager with a Lean Six Sigma Black Belt and a Bachelor's degree in Business Management. With more than ten years of experience applying his skills across various industries, Daniel specializes in optimizing processes and improving efficiency. His approach combines practical experience with a deep understanding of business fundamentals to drive meaningful change.

In business strategy and management, the TOWS Matrix is a useful tool, facilitating organizations in sculpting effective strategies through a detailed analysis of their internal strengths and weaknesses against external opportunities and threats. This acronymic framework, standing for Threats, Opportunities, Weaknesses, and Strengths, transcends traditional approaches by offering a more comprehensive, action-oriented perspective.

Unlike its close relative, the SWOT analysis, the TOWS Matrix delves deeper, creating tangible strategic options by intricately linking internal capabilities with external environmental factors. Its universal applicability across industries like manufacturing, logistics, and public services underscores its versatility and efficacy in strategic planning.

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TOWS Matrix

What is the TOWS Matrix?

The TOWS Matrix is a strategic management tool that plays a crucial role in helping organizations craft actionable strategies based on a comprehensive analysis of their internal and external environments. The acronym TOWS stands for:

  • T: Threats
  • O: Opportunities
  • W: Weaknesses
  • S: Strengths

Key Components

  1. Threats (T): These are external factors that could harm an organization. Threats could range from economic downturns and stringent regulations to increased competition and technological obsolescence.
  2. Opportunities (O): These are external conditions that an organization can benefit from. Opportunities might include market expansion, mergers and acquisitions, or the advent of new technologies that the organization can leverage.
  3. Weaknesses (W): These are internal limitations that prevent an organization from achieving its full potential. Weaknesses can be in the form of outdated technology, lack of skilled labor, or poor management systems.
  4. Strengths (S): These are internal attributes that give an organization an edge over competitors. Strengths can include a strong brand, proprietary technology, or an efficient supply chain.

How It Differs from SWOT Analysis


While the TOWS Matrix is closely related to SWOT analysis, they are not identical. A SWOT analysis is more of a diagnostic tool, providing a snapshot of an organization’s current state. In contrast, the TOWS Matrix takes the analysis a step further by explicitly linking the internal and external factors to generate strategic options. It provides a roadmap for how to act upon the results of the SWOT analysis.

Importance of TOWS Matrix

  • Strategic Alignment: The TOWS Matrix helps align an organization’s internal operations with external opportunities and threats, thereby ensuring a cohesive strategic direction.
  • Actionable Insights: The matrix helps convert analytical data into strategic actions by outlining how strengths can be leveraged and weaknesses can be overcome.
  • Risk Management: By identifying threats and weaknesses, the TOWS Matrix aids in preemptive risk mitigation strategies.
  • Resource Optimization: It helps in the effective allocation of resources by pinpointing areas where the organization can gain a competitive edge or needs improvement.

Applications Across Industries

The TOWS Matrix is versatile and can be used across various sectors such as manufacturing, logistics, FMCG, automotive, and even public services. For example, a logistics company could use the TOWS Matrix to identify opportunities for automation while recognizing the threats posed by volatile fuel prices.

Why Use the TOWS Matrix?

The TOWS Matrix is not just another tool to add to your strategic arsenal; it is a comprehensive framework that addresses several crucial aspects of business management. Below are some of the compelling reasons why organizations should consider using the TOWS Matrix.

1. Strategic Alignment

  • What It Means: Strategic alignment refers to the process of ensuring that an organization’s actions and resources are directed towards achieving its mission, vision, and strategic objectives.
  • How TOWS Helps: The TOWS Matrix allows organizations to map out how their internal strengths and weaknesses can be aligned with external opportunities and threats. This ensures that strategies are not developed in isolation but are intrinsically tied to real-world factors affecting the business.
  • Example: If a manufacturing firm identifies automation as an opportunity and skilled labor as a strength, it can strategically align these elements by investing in advanced automation technologies, thus enhancing productivity.

2. Risk Mitigation

  • What It Means: Risk mitigation involves identifying potential risks and taking proactive measures to reduce or eliminate their impact.
  • How TOWS Helps: By thoroughly analyzing both internal weaknesses and external threats, the TOWS Matrix provides a clear picture of the risks an organization faces. This allows for the development of strategies specifically designed to mitigate these risks.
  • Example: A logistics company that identifies fuel price volatility as a threat and its extensive network as a strength might invest in fuel-efficient or alternative-fuel vehicles to mitigate risk.

3. Resource Optimization

  • What It Means: Resource optimization is the efficient utilization of organizational resources—be it manpower, capital, or technology—to achieve maximum output with minimal waste.
  • How TOWS Helps: The TOWS Matrix helps organizations identify where their strengths can be best utilized and where weaknesses need to be addressed, thereby ensuring that resources are allocated in the most effective manner.
  • Example: An FMCG company with strong distribution channels (strength) but low brand recognition (weakness) might optimize resources by increasing marketing efforts while leveraging its existing distribution network to reach a broader audience.

Additional Benefits

  • Focus on Action: Unlike other strategic tools that might offer a more theoretical or diagnostic approach, the TOWS Matrix is action-oriented. It pushes organizations to think critically about how to implement strategies effectively.
  • Adaptability: The TOWS Matrix is not industry-specific. Whether you are in automotive, manufacturing, or public services, the framework remains effective.
  • Prioritization: It helps in prioritizing strategies based on their potential impact, feasibility, and alignment with organizational objectives, making it easier for decision-makers to choose the right course of action.

How to Create a TOWS Matrix

Creating a TOWS Matrix is a multi-step process that starts with conducting a thorough SWOT analysis. Below is an in-depth guide on how to go about each step, beginning with the SWOT analysis.

Step 1: Conduct a SWOT Analysis

Before diving into the TOWS Matrix, you must first have a clear understanding of your organization’s Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats through a SWOT analysis. This acts as the foundational layer upon which the TOWS Matrix is built.

Preparing for the SWOT Analysis

  1. Assemble a Team: Gather a cross-functional team that represents various departments and levels within the organization. This ensures diverse perspectives.
  2. Define Objectives: Clearly state what you hope to achieve with the SWOT analysis. Are you looking to enter a new market, launch a product, or improve operational efficiency?
  3. Gather Data: Collate relevant data such as market research, financial reports, and operational metrics. This will provide a factual basis for your discussion.

Conducting the Brainstorming Session

  1. Strengths: What are your internal positives?
    • Consider factors like your unique selling proposition, skilled workforce, strong brand reputation, or proprietary technology.
    • Use questions like: “What do we do exceptionally well?” or “What resources do we have that others don’t?”
  2. Weaknesses: What are your internal negatives?
    • Look at areas where you can improve, such as outdated technology, lack of talent, or inefficient processes.
    • Ask questions like: “What could we improve?” or “What are we lacking compared to competitors?”
  3. Opportunities: What external circumstances can you capitalize on?
    • Think about market trends, economic conditions, or changes in consumer behavior that could benefit your organization.
    • Pose questions such as: “What trends could we take advantage of?” or “Are there gaps in the market?”
  4. Threats: What external factors can harm you?
    • Evaluate external factors like competitor actions, regulatory changes, or economic downturns that could negatively affect your business.
    • Use questions like: “What obstacles do we face?” or “What are our competitors doing that could harm us?”

Step 2: Draw the Matrix

If you don’t want to create your own Matrix you can download our premade one here

SWOT Diagram Analysis - Feature Image - Learnleansigma

Once you have conducted a comprehensive SWOT analysis and have a clear understanding of your organization’s Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats, the next step is to create the actual TOWS Matrix. This involves drawing a 2×2 grid and labeling each of its quadrants. Here’s a detailed guide on how to accomplish this:

Tools You Can Use:

  1. Paper and Pencil: If you’re doing this in a workshop setting, a whiteboard or flip chart works well for immediate brainstorming.
  2. Digital Tools: Software like Microsoft PowerPoint, Excel, or specialized strategy software can be used for a more polished, shareable version.
  3. Project Management Software: Some advanced project management tools have built-in features for creating TOWS Matrices.

Drawing the 2×2 Grid:

  1. Create the Grid: Draw a large “plus” sign (+) on your chosen medium to create four distinct quadrants.
  2. Label the Axes: On one axis, usually the vertical, write “Strengths” at the top end and “Weaknesses” at the bottom end. On the other axis, usually the horizontal, write “Opportunities” on one end and “Threats” on the other.

Labeling the Quadrants:

  1. Strengths/Opportunities (SO): This quadrant is located where the ‘Strengths’ and ‘Opportunities’ axes intersect. Strategies here aim to use internal strengths to capitalize on external opportunities.
  2. Strengths/Threats (ST): This is the quadrant where the ‘Strengths’ and ‘Threats’ axes meet. The focus here is on using strengths to mitigate or eliminate external threats.
  3. Weaknesses/Opportunities (WO): Situated at the intersection of the ‘Weaknesses’ and ‘Opportunities’ axes, this quadrant focuses on strategies that can overcome internal weaknesses by exploiting external opportunities.
  4. Weaknesses/Threats (WT): Located at the intersection of the ‘Weaknesses’ and ‘Threats’ axes, this quadrant is about creating strategies to minimize weaknesses and defend against external threats.
TOWS Matrix

Step 3: Populate the Matrix

After drawing your TOWS Matrix and labeling its quadrants, the next crucial step is to populate it with actionable strategies. This is the stage where the real value of the TOWS Matrix comes into play, as it allows you to develop specific strategies that address the unique combinations of your Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats. Here’s how to go about it:


  1. Gather Your Team: Bring together the team members who participated in the SWOT analysis. Their insights will be invaluable at this stage.
  2. Review SWOT Findings: Quickly revisit the SWOT analysis to refresh everyone’s memory about the identified Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats.

Populate Each Quadrant:

  1. Strengths/Opportunities (SO) Strategies:
    • Objective: Leverage your internal strengths to take advantage of external opportunities.
    • Questions to Ask:
      • “How can our strengths help us capitalize on these opportunities?”
      • “Can we develop new products or enter new markets?”
    • Example: If one of your strengths is a highly skilled R&D team and an opportunity is an emerging market trend, an SO strategy could be to accelerate R&D to develop products that meet this new demand.
  2. Strengths/Threats (ST) Strategies:
    • Objective: Use your strengths to mitigate or neutralize external threats.
    • Questions to Ask:
      • “How can we use our strengths to counter these threats?”
      • “Can we change the market perception or combat negative publicity?”
    • Example: If a strength is your brand reputation and a threat is a new competitor, an ST strategy might be to launch a marketing campaign emphasizing your track record and reliability.
  3. Weaknesses/Opportunities (WO) Strategies:
    • Objective: Overcome or improve internal weaknesses by taking advantage of external opportunities.
    • Questions to Ask:
      • “How can we turn our weaknesses into strengths to seize these opportunities?”
      • “Is retraining staff or adopting new technologies feasible?”
    • Example: If a weakness is outdated technology but there’s an opportunity in technological advancements, a WO strategy could be to invest in technology upgrades.
  4. Weaknesses/Threats (WT) Strategies:
    • Objective: Develop strategies that minimize internal weaknesses and defend against external threats.
    • Questions to Ask:
      • “How can we mitigate our weaknesses to defend against these threats?”
      • “Is outsourcing or forming partnerships an option?”
    • Example: If a weakness is high operational costs and a threat is a downturn in the economy, a WT strategy might involve cost-cutting measures like outsourcing non-core activities.

Step 4: Evaluate and Prioritize Strategies

After you’ve populated the TOWS Matrix, it’s essential to evaluate and prioritize the strategies you’ve developed. The end goal is to focus your efforts on the most impactful and feasible strategies. Here’s how to go about it:

Evaluation Criteria:

  1. Viability: Assess whether the strategy is realistic given your organization’s current situation. Consider factors like budget, manpower, and time constraints.
  2. Impact: Evaluate the potential positive or negative outcomes of each strategy. Will it significantly advance your organization’s objectives or mitigate crucial risks?
  3. Ease of Implementation: How quickly and easily can the strategy be executed? Does it require new skills, technologies, or substantial financial investment?

Methodology for Prioritization:

  1. Scoring Method: Assign a numerical score for each criterion (Viability, Impact, Ease of Implementation) for every strategy. Sum these up to get a total score.
  2. Ranking: Sort the strategies based on their total scores. Those with higher scores should be considered for immediate implementation.
  3. Sensitivity Analysis: Consider the best and worst-case scenarios for each strategy. This helps to understand the range of potential outcomes.
  4. Stakeholder Input: Include key stakeholders in the prioritization process. Their insights can provide additional perspectives that may alter the priority ranking.

Interpreting the TOWS Matrix:

Once you’ve evaluated and prioritized your strategies, the next step is to interpret the TOWS Matrix to develop an actionable plan.

  1. Analysis:
    • Break down each quadrant’s strategies into actionable steps.
    • Identify the resources needed for each strategy.
  2. Prioritization:
    • Based on the evaluation, select the most impactful and feasible strategies for immediate implementation.
    • Create a “shortlist” of strategies to be considered for long-term planning.
  3. Action Plan:
    • For each selected strategy, develop a detailed implementation plan outlining the steps, timelines, responsible parties, and required resources.
    • Use project management tools to track the progress of each strategy’s implementation.

Additional Tips:

  • Documentation: Ensure that both the evaluation process and the final action plan are well-documented. This enables easier communication and follow-through.
  • Review and Adapt: The TOWS Matrix is not a one-off exercise. Periodically review and update it to reflect changes in internal and external environments.
  • Alignment with Objectives: Always ensure that the prioritized strategies are aligned with the organization’s overarching objectives and strategic goals.

By the end of this step, you’ll have transformed your TOWS Matrix from a static analytical tool into a dynamic roadmap for strategic action. You will not only know what your organization needs to do but also have a prioritized, actionable plan for how to do it.


The TOWS Matrix, is key in strategic business analysis, is more than just a theoretical tool; it’s a practical roadmap for actionable strategies. Its strength lies in aligning an organization’s core competencies and areas for improvement with the external market dynamics, thus fostering strategic alignment, risk mitigation, and optimal resource utilization.

By transforming insights from a SWOT analysis into strategic actions, the TOWS Matrix empowers businesses to not only identify but effectively respond to the intricate tapestry of opportunities and challenges in their respective industries. The methodical approach to creating and interpreting the TOWS Matrix ensures that strategies are not just conceptualized but also prioritized and implemented, making it an useful tool for organizations striving for sustained success in a changing business environment. 


A: While both SWOT and TOWS analyses identify an organization’s Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats, the TOWS Matrix goes a step further. It explicitly maps out strategies that leverage or mitigate these factors, thereby converting analytical data into actionable plans.

A: Absolutely! The TOWS Matrix is highly versatile and can be applied at various levels within an organization, including individual departments or even specific projects. This allows for more targeted strategic planning.

A: The frequency of updates depends on how dynamic your internal and external environments are. However, it’s generally good practice to revisit the TOWS Matrix at least annually, or whenever there are significant changes that could impact your strategies.

A: While specialized strategy software can make the process smoother, it’s not a requirement. You can create a TOWS Matrix using simple tools like paper and pencil, whiteboards, or basic software like Microsoft Excel and PowerPoint.

A: The success of these strategies can be measured using Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) that are aligned with each strategy’s objectives. Regular monitoring and evaluation are essential for understanding the effectiveness and making any necessary adjustments.


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Daniel Croft

Daniel Croft is a seasoned continuous improvement manager with a Black Belt in Lean Six Sigma. With over 10 years of real-world application experience across diverse sectors, Daniel has a passion for optimizing processes and fostering a culture of efficiency. He's not just a practitioner but also an avid learner, constantly seeking to expand his knowledge. Outside of his professional life, Daniel has a keen Investing, statistics and knowledge-sharing, which led him to create the website learnleansigma.com, a platform dedicated to Lean Six Sigma and process improvement insights.

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