What is swimlane

Guide: Swimlane Process Map

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Daniel Croft

Daniel Croft is an experienced continuous improvement manager with a Lean Six Sigma Black Belt and a Bachelor's degree in Business Management. With more than ten years of experience applying his skills across various industries, Daniel specializes in optimizing processes and improving efficiency. His approach combines practical experience with a deep understanding of business fundamentals to drive meaningful change.

Welcome to our in-depth guide on Swim Lane Process Mapping—a powerful tool designed to optimize your business processes. Whether you’re an industry veteran, a Lean Six Sigma black belt, or a newcomer to the world of organizational efficiency, this guide offers valuable insights to elevate your understanding and implementation of process mapping.

In its essence, a Swim Lane Process Map is a visual representation that outlines various steps in a process, while categorizing who is responsible for each action. Think of it as a swimming pool where each lane signifies a specific department or role, making it easy to identify who does what and when. By the end of this guide, you’ll have a strong grasp of what Swim Lane Process Maps are, why they are crucial for process optimization, and how to create one effectively. Let’s dive in and start streamlining your processes today!

Table of Contents

What is a Swim Lane Process Map?

A Swim Lane Process Map is a specialized form of flowchart designed to make complex processes easier to understand by visually organizing tasks, activities, and decisions. The “swim lanes” are essentially parallel horizontal or vertical lanes that represent different departments, roles, or individuals involved in a process. Each lane contains a series of steps or tasks that are the responsibility of that specific department or role.

Visual Analogy

Imagine a swimming pool with multiple lanes. Each lane is like a specific department or role in your organization. Just as a swimmer stays within their lane to reach the finish line, each department or role stays within its lane to complete its designated tasks. This segregation by lanes allows for a clear, visual representation of who does what and when, thereby reducing confusion and ensuring that everyone knows their responsibilities.

Business Process Mapping Swim lane cross functional process map

Swimlane / Cross functional process map

Why Use a Swim Lane Process Map?

1. Clarifies Roles:

In any organization, ambiguity about roles and responsibilities can lead to inefficiency and mistakes. A Swim Lane Process Map eliminates this ambiguity by clearly outlining who is responsible for what, making it easier for team members to focus on their specific tasks.

2. Identifies Bottlenecks:

Bottlenecks can bring an otherwise efficient process to a grinding halt. By visually representing the flow of tasks, Swim Lane Process Maps make it easier to spot these bottlenecks. Once identified, you can take targeted action to resolve them.

3. Improves Communication:

Miscommunication or lack of communication can cause delays and errors. Swim Lane Process Maps serve as a single point of reference for all team members, facilitating better understanding and communication between departments or roles. This is especially useful in cross-functional processes.

4. Enhances Efficiency:

Once roles are clarified, bottlenecks identified, and communication improved, the natural outcome is enhanced efficiency. The map becomes a tool for continuous improvement, allowing you to streamline the process over time for better productivity.

By offering a structured visual layout, Swim Lane Process Maps serve as an excellent tool for both understanding the current state of a process and planning for future improvements. They are invaluable for anyone interested in process optimization, from Lean Six Sigma practitioners to project managers and organizational leaders.

Key Components of a Swim Lane Process Map

Understanding the key elements of a Swim Lane Process Map can significantly improve your ability to create an effective one. Below are the components that make up a standard Swim Lane Process Map:

1. Lanes

  • Definition: These are the horizontal or vertical rectangles that segregate the process by department, role, or phase.
  • Importance: Lanes are crucial for distributing tasks and responsibilities clearly. They help in identifying which team or individual is accountable for each part of the process.

2. Steps

  • Definition: Steps or tasks are the activities that need to be completed within each lane. They are generally represented by rectangles.
  • Importance: Steps provide a granular look at the process, helping to identify what exactly needs to be done and by whom.

Activity Shape

3. Connectors

  • Definition: These are arrows that show the flow of the process from one step to the next.
  • Importance: Connectors guide the viewer through the process, showing how tasks are interrelated and in what sequence they occur.


4. Decision Points

  • Definition: These are represented by diamond shapes and indicate a decision that must be made, often resulting in diverging paths.
  • Importance: Decision points are critical for understanding where choices must be made in the process, affecting its flow and outcome.

Decision Shape

How to Create a Swim Lane Process Map

Creating a Swim Lane Process Map is a structured yet flexible approach that involves multiple stages. Here’s a detailed explanation of how to go about each step:

Step 1: Identify the Process

  • What to Do: Start by choosing the process you wish to map. This could range from something specific like “Order Processing” to something more general like “Employee Onboarding.”
  • Why It’s Important: Knowing the process you want to map sets the stage for what you aim to achieve. It helps in focusing your mapping efforts and ensures that all participants have a clear understanding of the objective.

Step 2: Determine the Participants

  • What to Do: Identify all the departments, roles, or individuals involved in the process.
  • Why It’s Important: These entities will form the ‘lanes’ in your Swim Lane Process Map. Knowing who is involved is essential for assigning responsibilities and ensuring a seamless flow of activities.

Step 3: Start Mapping

  • What to Do:

    1. Place your lanes either horizontally or vertically on your map.
    2. Start with the first step in the first lane.
    3. Add subsequent steps and decision points in each lane as they occur in the process.
  • Why It’s Important: The lanes help in segregating tasks based on roles or departments. Adding steps and decision points in a logical sequence ensures that you capture the process accurately.

Step 4: Add Connectors

  • What to Do: Use arrows to indicate the flow of the process from one step to the next.
  • Why It’s Important: Connectors are crucial for directing the flow of activities. They help in understanding how each task moves from one entity to another and in what sequence.

Step 5: Review and Validate

  • What to Do: After the initial draft is complete, review the map to check for accuracy. It’s also a good idea to validate the map by consulting with team members who are involved in the process.
  • Why It’s Important: Review and validation ensure that the map is not only accurate but also practical. It identifies any missing steps or bottlenecks that may have been overlooked.

Step 6: Implement and Monitor

  • What to Do: Once the map is finalized, use it as a guide for executing the process. It should also serve as a tool for ongoing monitoring and potential improvements.
  • Why It’s Important: The ultimate goal of a Swim Lane Process Map is to improve efficiency. Regularly referencing and updating the map ensures that it remains a relevant tool for continuous improvement.

By meticulously following these steps, you will be able to create a detailed and effective Swim Lane Process Map that serves as a valuable asset for process analysis and improvement.


Creating a Swim Lane Process Map is a systematic and insightful approach to visualizing and improving business processes. By defining clear lanes for various roles or departments and outlining the steps, decision points, and connectors, this mapping technique brings clarity and structure to otherwise complex processes. Whether you’re looking to clarify roles, identify bottlenecks, enhance communication, or simply improve efficiency, a well-crafted Swim Lane Process Map can be your roadmap to operational excellence.

Remember, the key to effective mapping lies in its simplicity, regular updates, and wise use of visual elements like colors. As with any tool aimed at continuous improvement, its true value is realized not just in its creation but in its practical application and ongoing refinement. So, take that first step today—identify a process, gather your team, and start mapping your way to enhanced productivity and effectiveness.


A: The primary purpose of a Swim Lane Process Map is to visually represent a process in a way that clearly defines roles, responsibilities, and the flow of tasks. It helps in identifying bottlenecks, improving communication, and ultimately enhancing the efficiency of a process.

A: Absolutely, Swim Lane Process Maps are versatile and can be applied across various industries and sectors. Whether you’re in manufacturing, healthcare, logistics, or even the public sector, this tool can be invaluable for understanding and optimizing processes.

A: The level of detail depends on the complexity of the process and the needs of the audience. However, it’s generally advisable to keep it as simple as possible to ensure that it remains easy to understand and use. Overcomplicating the map can defeat its purpose.

A: The frequency of updates depends on how dynamic the mapped process is. For rapidly changing processes, more frequent updates may be necessary. However, it’s a good practice to review the map periodically and after any significant process changes to keep it current and effective.


Daniel Croft

Daniel Croft

Daniel Croft is a seasoned continuous improvement manager with a Black Belt in Lean Six Sigma. With over 10 years of real-world application experience across diverse sectors, Daniel has a passion for optimizing processes and fostering a culture of efficiency. He's not just a practitioner but also an avid learner, constantly seeking to expand his knowledge. Outside of his professional life, Daniel has a keen Investing, statistics and knowledge-sharing, which led him to create the website learnleansigma.com, a platform dedicated to Lean Six Sigma and process improvement insights.

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