What is Autonomous Maintenance

Guide: Autonomous Maintenance

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Daniel Croft

Daniel Croft is an experienced continuous improvement manager with a Lean Six Sigma Black Belt and a Bachelor's degree in Business Management. With more than ten years of experience applying his skills across various industries, Daniel specializes in optimizing processes and improving efficiency. His approach combines practical experience with a deep understanding of business fundamentals to drive meaningful change.

Autonomous Maintenance, a cornerstone of the Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) philosophy, revolutionizes the traditional approach to equipment upkeep in the workplace. This strategy empowers machine operators, the individuals most familiar with the daily nuances of their equipment, to undertake basic maintenance tasks. This shift not only relieves skilled maintenance teams from routine activities, allowing them to focus on complex tasks, but also fosters a proactive maintenance culture. Emphasizing tasks such as cleaning, lubricating, and tightening, Autonomous Maintenance aims to prevent small issues from escalating into significant problems, thus enhancing overall efficiency, safety, and machine performance.

Table of Contents

What is Autonomous Maintenance?

Autonomous Maintenance is an integral part of the Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) philosophy, which aims to create a culture of proactive maintenance and continuous improvement in the workplace. In this strategy, machine operators are trained to perform basic maintenance tasks on the equipment they use every day. This is quite different from traditional maintenance models where specialized maintenance teams handle all aspects of machine upkeep.

Breaking It Down

  1. Machine Operators: These are the people who use the machines daily and are most familiar with their normal operating conditions.

  2. Simple Maintenance Tasks: These include activities like cleaning, lubricating, and tightening screws. The idea is to handle small issues before they become big problems.

  3. Skilled Maintenance Team: This team handles more complex tasks like machine overhauls or part replacements. They are freed up to focus on these tasks because the machine operators are handling the simpler maintenance activities.

  4. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM): This is a broader organizational approach aimed at improving the availability, performance, and quality of machinery.

The Benefits

  • Preventive Focus: By having operators involved in routine maintenance, issues can be detected and resolved before they escalate into more significant problems.

  • Skill Development: Machine operators develop a deeper understanding of their equipment, which can lead to more efficient operations and problem-solving.

  • Resource Optimization: Skilled maintenance teams can focus on more complex tasks, thereby making better use of their specialized skills.

Why is Autonomous Maintenance Important?

Autonomous Maintenance offers a plethora of benefits that contribute to the overall efficiency and safety of the workplace. Let’s explore these in detail:

Reduces Downtime

  • Immediate Action: Operators can quickly address minor issues, preventing them from escalating into problems that would require a complete machine shutdown.

  • Less Waiting: There’s no need to wait for the maintenance team to arrive, making the process more efficient.

Improves Efficiency

  • Optimal Operation: Well-maintained machines are less likely to break down and typically operate at higher efficiency, positively affecting the productivity levels.

  • Quality Output: Better-maintained machines are more likely to produce quality products, reducing waste.

Team Empowerment

  • Ownership: When operators are responsible for the machines they work on, it fosters a sense of ownership and accountability.

  • Skill Enhancement: As operators learn more about their machines, they become more skilled, increasing their value and job satisfaction.


  • Prevention: Regular cleaning and inspection can prevent hazardous conditions like oil leaks or loose parts that could lead to accidents.

  • Awareness: Because operators are actively engaged in maintaining their equipment, they are more aware of the machine’s state and can identify safety risks more readily.

By implementing Autonomous Maintenance, you not only improve your operational metrics but also create a workplace that is safer and more engaged.

Step-by-Step Guide to Implementing Autonomous Maintenance

Implementing Autonomous Maintenance is a structured process that involves several key steps which are implemented over a period of time which can take months or years depending on the culture and resource in the business. Each step builds on the previous one, ensuring that operators gradually take on more responsibility for the maintenance of their equipment. Here’s a detailed look at each step in the process.

Step 1: Initial Cleaning and Inspection

The first step of implementing Autonomous Maintenance is to clean the equipment thoroughly and conduct an initial inspection. This can also be a good opportunity to implement 5S to clean equipment and ensure there are maintenance standards in place to keep the equipment clean. However, it is important to note this is not just a cleaning task, but also a detailed exploration of the equipment.

This should be done by process operators cleaning every part of their machine, even areas that are not usually accessed. During this cleaning process, they are encouraged to inspect each part, take note of any abnormalities, and understand the equipment’s normal good working order condition.

By doing this, operators develop a baseline understanding of their equipment, including potential problem areas, and learn the importance of cleanliness in maintaining equipment health.

Step 2: Counteracting Sources of Contamination and Inaccessible Areas

Once the equipment is clean the next focus is to identify and address any sources of contamination and areas that are difficult to access for cleaning and maintenance. Examples of contamination include oil leaks or excess grease build ups. These should be easier to identify following a deep clean as oil leaks will be difficult to keep clean.

Operators and maintenance staff should work together to find solutions to these problems, this could include redesigning parts for better access, developing new cleaning tools or establishing routines to prevent contamination.

As a result of this equipment then becomes easier to maintain, and the chances of contamination or neglected areas leading to equipment failure is reduced.

Step 3: Establishing Tentative Standards

The next step is to develop standards for cleaning, lubricating, and inspecting the equipment. This should be done based on the experience of the first two steps, operators can create initial standards or guidelines for maintaining equipment.

For this a set of best practices and standard work instruction should be made and tailored to the specific needs and characteristics of each piece of equipment.

Step 4: General Inspection

In step 4 the goal is to enable operators to be able to perform general inspections of equipment, by giving them the required knowledge to identify potential issues. This is achieved by training which is focused on the basics of mechanical principles relevant to the equipment, the understanding of common failures, and learning basic inspection techniques. Operators also taught to identify signs of wear, abnormal noises, leaks or other indicators that suggest there is a problem. This training should include hands on sessions with the operators guided through real scenarios and inspection routines on the equipment they use.

Following the training the operators should be able to conduct routine inspections independently. They will also be expected to recognize when a situation is beyond their expertise and requires attention of a specialized maintenance personnel. This level of inspection ensure that minor issues can be addressed more efficiently before they escalate into major problems.

Step 5: Autonomous Inspection

The next step shifts the focus to empowering operators to take full responsibility for the inspection and basic maintenance of equipment. Building on the general inspection skills acquired in the previous step, operators now start applying the provisional standards they developed in Step 3. This requires a more in-depth understanding of the equipment and a higher skill level. The operators use checklists, guidelines, and procedures to inspect, clean, lubricate, and perform minor adjustments on their machinery.

Operators are now capable of managing the basic upkeep of their equipment autonomously. They are able to identify and rectify common issues and only escalate major or complex problems to the maintenance team. This step is critical in fostering a sense of ownership and accountability among the operators for their equipment.

Step 6: Standardization

Step 6 is to formalize and standardize the maintenance practices developed during the earlier steps. The provisional standards and practices are reviewed and refined based on the operators’ experiences and the feedback from the maintenance team. This review process leads to the development of detailed, standardized checklists, maintenance schedules, and procedures that can be applied consistently across similar equipment and processes within the organization.

The establishment of a set of standardized maintenance practices ensures consistency in how maintenance tasks are performed. This standardization is crucial for maintaining equipment reliability and effectiveness across the entire organization.

Step 7: Continuous Improvement

The final step is to instill a culture of ongoing improvement in maintenance procedures and practices. This step involves regular reviews and updates to the maintenance practices. Operators and maintenance teams collaborate to assess the effectiveness of current practices and identify areas for improvement. This might include adopting new technologies, revising existing procedures, or providing additional training to address new challenges or inefficiencies.

The maintenance program evolves into a dynamic system that continuously adapts and improves. This approach ensures that the maintenance practices stay effective and relevant, and the organization can respond promptly to new challenges and opportunities for improvement.


Implementing Autonomous Maintenance exceeds basic operational improvements; it cultivates a safer, more engaged, and efficient workplace. This approach, integral to TPM, enables machine operators to swiftly address minor issues and gain deeper equipment knowledge, enhancing their skills and job satisfaction. The seven-step process of Autonomous Maintenance, ranging from initial thorough cleaning to achieving full autonomous maintenance, ensures a preventive focus, resource optimization, and heightened safety. By embedding this methodology into the organizational culture, companies not only optimize their operational metrics but also foster a sense of ownership and accountability among their staff, leading to sustained improvement and excellence in their operations.


A: Autonomous Maintenance is a strategy where machine operators take on simple maintenance tasks to free up the skilled maintenance team for more complex tasks.

A: Lean Six Sigma focuses on continuous improvement and waste reduction, which are also the goals of Autonomous Maintenance. They both use similar tools for problem-solving and performance measurement.

A: The key steps are: Increasing Operator Knowledge, Initial Cleaning and Inspection, Eliminating Causes of Contamination, Setting Standards for Lubrication and Inspection, Conducting Inspection and Monitoring, Standardizing Visual Maintenance Management, and Establishing Continuous Improvement.

A: While the guide focuses on industrial settings like automotive, warehousing, and FMCG, the principles of Autonomous Maintenance can be adapted to various other sectors as well.

A: Tools like checklists, KPIs, sensors, and visual management aids can facilitate the implementation of Autonomous Maintenance.


Daniel Croft

Daniel Croft

Daniel Croft is a seasoned continuous improvement manager with a Black Belt in Lean Six Sigma. With over 10 years of real-world application experience across diverse sectors, Daniel has a passion for optimizing processes and fostering a culture of efficiency. He's not just a practitioner but also an avid learner, constantly seeking to expand his knowledge. Outside of his professional life, Daniel has a keen Investing, statistics and knowledge-sharing, which led him to create the website learnleansigma.com, a platform dedicated to Lean Six Sigma and process improvement insights.

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