What is Push pull flow

Guide: Push, Pull, Flow

Achieving efficient manufacturing involves integrating Push, Pull, and Flow systems to optimize production, enhance flexibility, reduce waste, and improve overall customer satisfaction.
Author's Avatar

Daniel Croft

Daniel Croft is an experienced continuous improvement manager with a Lean Six Sigma Black Belt and a Bachelor's degree in Business Management. With more than ten years of experience applying his skills across various industries, Daniel specializes in optimizing processes and improving efficiency. His approach combines practical experience with a deep understanding of business fundamentals to drive meaningful change.

In the world of Lean manufacturing, efficiency is king. The principles of Lean aim to streamline production, reduce waste, and ultimately deliver value to the customer. Among these principles, the concepts of “Push,” “Pull,” and “Flow” are foundational. These strategies dictate how products and information move through a manufacturing system, influencing everything from inventory management to order fulfillment. By understanding and implementing these concepts, organizations can significantly enhance their operational efficiency and responsiveness to market demands.

Table of Contents

Push System

Overview of the Push System

The Push system, a cornerstone of traditional manufacturing practices, operates on a principle where production decisions are driven by forecasted demand rather than real-time demand signals. This model sees products being made in anticipation of customer demand, relying on projections and historical data to dictate the quantity and timing of production. The system gets its name from the concept of products being “pushed” through to the next stage of manufacturing, and ultimately to the consumer, irrespective of immediate market needs.

How the Push System Works

In the Push system, the entire production process is meticulously planned based on demand forecasts that predict what customers will want in the future. These forecasts are derived from historical sales data, market trends, seasonal influences, and economic indicators. Manufacturing schedules, material purchases, and labor allocations are all set in advance, aiming to maximize production efficiency and optimize resource use.

Key Components of the Push System:

  1. Forecasting Demand: Companies use sophisticated algorithms and market analysis to estimate future product demand.
  2. Pre-set Production Schedules: Production activities are scheduled to meet the anticipated demand, often arranged in batches or runs that maximize production efficiency.
  3. Inventory Management: Inventory levels are maintained to ensure that enough products are available to meet forecasted sales, leading to larger stock holdings.

Advantages of the Push System

The primary advantage of the Push system lies in its ability to streamline operations and potentially reduce costs through:

  • Economies of Scale: By producing goods in larger batches, companies can reduce per-unit production costs.
  • Optimized Equipment Use: Production equipment can be used more efficiently, operating at full capacity and reducing idle time.
  • Planning Efficiency: With schedules and resource allocation determined in advance, the entire manufacturing operation can be coordinated more smoothly.

Disadvantages and Risks

Despite its advantages, the Push system carries significant risks, primarily due to its reliance on forecasts that may not always be accurate:

  • Overproduction: If demand is overestimated, the system can lead to excessive production, creating surpluses of unsold products.
  • Inventory Costs: High levels of inventory tie up capital that could be used elsewhere in the business and increase storage and management costs.
  • Inflexibility: The system’s reliance on pre-planned schedules makes it less adaptable to sudden changes in market demand or customer preferences. If a product becomes less popular or consumer trends shift, the company may be left with large quantities of unwanted stock.
  • Wastage: Products that are overproduced and cannot be sold may eventually become obsolete, leading to waste and financial losses.

Real-World Implications

For example, consider a toy manufacturer that uses the Push system to prepare for the holiday season. Based on previous years’ sales data, they might produce large quantities of a new toy. However, if this toy does not capture the market’s interest as expected, the company could end up with vast quantities of unsold toys, resulting in financial losses and storage issues.

The Push system, while beneficial in situations with stable demand and long lead times, presents challenges in dynamic markets where consumer preferences can change rapidly. Businesses using this approach must be adept at forecasting and ready to handle the ramifications of inaccuracies in their demand predictions. For many modern enterprises, incorporating more flexible and responsive manufacturing techniques, such as the Pull system, offers a way to mitigate some of the risks associated with the traditional Push model.

Pull System

Overview of the Pull System

The Pull system represents a fundamental shift from traditional manufacturing practices, focusing on production driven by actual, immediate demand rather than forecasts. This demand-driven approach ensures that production activities across various stages are closely aligned with real-time market requirements, enhancing flexibility and reducing waste.

How the Pull System Works

In a Pull system, the production process starts only when there is a direct request from the downstream process — the next link in the production chain. Each stage of production pulls the required components from the preceding stage only when needed. This method contrasts sharply with the Push system, where production is driven by predicted demand and goods are pushed forward regardless of immediate needs.

Key Components of the Pull System:

  1. Demand-Triggered Production: Each step in the manufacturing process is initiated by actual demand from the next step, not by an estimate of future demand.
  2. Just-In-Time (JIT) Manufacturing: A strategy that aligns material orders from suppliers directly with production schedules. JIT aims to receive goods only as they are needed in the production process, thus minimizing inventory costs.
  3. Kanban Systems: Visual signaling mechanisms, like Kanban cards, are used to communicate demand between different parts of the production line. When a workstation needs more materials or parts, a Kanban signal is sent to the preceding workstation to produce and deliver those parts.

Advantages of the Pull System

The Pull system offers several key advantages that can significantly enhance operational efficiency and reduce costs:

  • Reduced Inventory Levels: Since production is based on actual demand, companies do not maintain large inventories. This minimizes capital tied up in unsold goods and reduces storage and handling costs.
  • Increased Flexibility and Responsiveness: The system’s inherent flexibility allows it to adapt quickly to changes in customer demand without significant overhauls in production planning.
  • Lower Waste: By producing only what is needed, the Pull system naturally reduces the waste associated with overproduction and excess inventory.
  • Enhanced Quality Control: Smaller production runs associated with the Pull system allow for more frequent inspections and adjustments, improving overall product quality.

Disadvantages and Challenges

While the Pull system offers significant advantages, it also comes with its own set of challenges:

  • Dependency on Suppliers: Just-In-Time manufacturing requires reliable and prompt suppliers. Any delays in the supply chain can halt the entire production line.
  • Complexity in Planning and Coordination: Managing a Pull system can be complex, especially in large-scale operations. Effective communication and coordination are crucial, as each part of the process relies on the timely delivery of components from the previous stage.
  • Limited Economies of Scale: Since this system avoids large production runs, it might lose out on economies of scale that could be achieved through mass production in a Push system.

Real-World Applications

A practical example of the Pull system can be seen in automotive manufacturing, where components like seats or engines are produced and delivered just as they are needed on the assembly line. This method ensures that no excess inventory of these components accumulates, optimizing space and resources.

The Pull system, central to JIT manufacturing, focuses on meeting actual demand efficiently and with minimal waste. While it requires robust coordination and reliable supply chains, its benefits of reduced inventory costs, improved flexibility, and enhanced quality make it a valuable strategy for companies striving to adapt to fast-changing market conditions and customer preferences. By integrating technologies like Kanban, organizations can effectively implement Pull systems to streamline their operations and better meet their customers’ needs.


Overview of Flow in Manufacturing

The concept of Flow is central to achieving efficiency in manufacturing processes. It focuses on the seamless, uninterrupted movement of materials, information, and products through the production line. The goal is to eliminate any disruptions that can cause delays, ensuring that the entire manufacturing process operates as a cohesive, integrated system. This continuous movement is essential for minimizing cycle times and enhancing overall productivity and customer satisfaction.

Achieving Good Flow

To establish and maintain good Flow, several strategies and practices are employed to optimize the efficiency of production processes:

  1. Workspace Layout Optimization: The physical arrangement of machinery, equipment, and workstations greatly affects the flow of materials and products. Efficient layouts, such as U-shaped or linear models, are designed to minimize unnecessary movements and streamline the flow from one stage of production to the next.

  2. Batch Size Reduction: By reducing the size of production batches, companies can decrease the time products spend in queue before the next processing step. Smaller batches mean quicker turnaround times and less congestion in the production process, which helps maintain a steady flow.

  3. Cross-Training Employees: When employees are trained to perform multiple tasks, they can move flexibly between different roles as needed. This adaptability is crucial for covering any gaps in the production line that might impede flow, such as during employee absences or machine breakdowns.

  4. Implementing Pull Mechanisms: Tools like Kanban can be integrated to ensure that each production step pulls in only what is needed from the previous step, thereby avoiding overproduction and underutilization that can disrupt flow.

  5. Continuous Improvement Practices: Techniques from Lean manufacturing, such as Kaizen, are used to continuously identify and eliminate bottlenecks. Regularly assessing processes and implementing improvements helps maintain a smooth flow.

Benefits of Good Flow

  • Reduced Cycle Times: A smoother flow reduces the time it takes for a product to move from the start of the production line to the end.
  • Increased Productivity: Minimizing delays and eliminating bottlenecks maximizes the output of the production system.
  • Higher Quality Products: Consistent flow often leads to more predictable and higher-quality manufacturing outcomes as processes are more controlled and consistent.
  • Enhanced Customer Satisfaction: Faster production and reliable delivery times lead to improved customer service and satisfaction.

Integrating Push, Pull, and Flow

While the Push and Pull systems address how and when production occurs based on demand, integrating these with the concept of Flow focuses on the efficiency of the production process itself. A balanced approach that combines these elements can significantly enhance manufacturing efficiency:

  • Use of Push for Stable-Demand Products: For products with predictable, stable demand, a Push system can be efficient and cost-effective, allowing for planned production runs that capitalize on economies of scale.

  • Adoption of Pull for Variable-Demand Products: For products with fluctuating demand or high customization requirements, a Pull system reduces the risk of overproduction and waste.

  • Ensuring Continuous Flow: Regardless of whether Push or Pull is used, maintaining a continuous flow throughout the production process ensures that resources are maximized, and delays are minimized.

Practical Application

For instance, a company manufacturing electronics might use a Push strategy to produce basic components that have stable demand and long shelf lives in large batches. At the same time, they might employ a Pull strategy for high-end, customizable products like gaming computers, where components are assembled based on specific customer orders to ensure relevance and reduce inventory costs. Integrating these strategies with an optimized flow ensures that both product lines are produced efficiently, meeting both economies of scale and customer-specific needs.

In conclusion, the concept of Flow in manufacturing is crucial for maximizing efficiency and productivity. When integrated with Push and Pull strategies, it creates a robust system that can adapt to varying demands while ensuring that the production process remains smooth and uninterrupted. This integration is essential for modern manufacturing environments that aim to be competitive, responsive, and efficient in their operations.


The concepts of Push, Pull, and Flow are not just strategies but are integral to the philosophy of Lean manufacturing. By understanding and appropriately applying these concepts, businesses can improve their operational efficiency, adapt more quickly to changes in demand, and reduce wastage. As markets become increasingly dynamic and customer preferences shift more rapidly, mastering these principles is essential for any manufacturing organization aiming to stay competitive and responsive.


A: The Push system produces goods based on forecasted demand, often leading to excess inventory. In contrast, the Pull system starts production in response to actual demand, minimizing inventory and waste.

A: Flow ensures smooth and continuous movement of materials and products through the production line, minimizing delays, reducing cycle times, and improving overall efficiency.

A: Integrating these systems can optimize resource use, adapt production to fluctuating demands, and streamline operations, thereby increasing efficiency and customer satisfaction.

A: Yes, many companies use a combination of both strategies, employing Push for stable-demand products and Pull for variable-demand or customized items to optimize production.

A: An optimized workspace layout reduces unnecessary movements and physical bottlenecks, facilitating smoother transitions between production stages and enhancing overall flow efficiency.


Picture of Daniel Croft

Daniel Croft

Daniel Croft is a seasoned continuous improvement manager with a Black Belt in Lean Six Sigma. With over 10 years of real-world application experience across diverse sectors, Daniel has a passion for optimizing processes and fostering a culture of efficiency. He's not just a practitioner but also an avid learner, constantly seeking to expand his knowledge. Outside of his professional life, Daniel has a keen Investing, statistics and knowledge-sharing, which led him to create the website learnleansigma.com, a platform dedicated to Lean Six Sigma and process improvement insights.

All Posts

Free Lean Six Sigma Templates

Improve your Lean Six Sigma projects with our free templates. They're designed to make implementation and management easier, helping you achieve better results.

Other Guides